Table of Contents:

Microscopy Cheese Yogurt Milk
Foods & bacteria Bacteria in foods Bacterial filters SEM of Bacteria
Microscopy & Hygiene Guest
Food Microscopists 2
Food Microscopists 3
Surface replication
Anaglyphs - 3-D SEM micrographs Food Structure J.
1. Dairy products
Food Structure J.
2. Fats and oils
Sticky tape
The Beauty of Milk... Talking about Electron
Microscopy of Foods
History of Publishing
Food Structure
Tables of Contents

Updated: April 29, 2016.

Food Structure Journal 1982-1993
Beauty of Milk is now available.
Hygiene & Microscopy is now available.
SEM of Bacteria is now available.
Talking about EM of Foods
Guest Food Microscopists 3
About the author


This website and related articles at have been saved (*/ in the Internet Archive by the WayBack Machine and are being occasionally updated, thus making it possible to access them even if this website ceases to exist. Thanks to Dr. D. J. McMahon, another archive was established 2014 at the Utah State University in the USA. Unlike the Internet Archive it is not being regularly updated.

The Royal Microscopical Society in the United Kingdom has redesigned a new website, where some papers published in the "infocus magazine" ("Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society") become available one year after the date of their publication on paper. Miloš Kaláb is the author or co-author of the following papers: Conventional SEM of Bacteria, The Beauty of Milk at High Magnification, and Microscopy and Hygiene. The most recent paper, Colourful vegetables - colourful micrographs ("infocus", issue 40, Dec. 2015, pp. 54-71) will hopefully be available in December 2016. Colleagues may inquire.

A major achievement in food structure studies in the past two years has been the digitization of all papers published in the Food Microstructure, Food Structure journal by Dr. D. J. McMahon at the Utah State University, where they are freely available in PDF format. This important endeavour was made possible by Dr. McMahon's determination and the fact that the publisher of the journal, Dr. Om Johari, expressed his desire before he passed away in 2015, that everything he had published, be freely accessible to everyone interested. It was very regrettable when, apparently for health reasons, he discontinued publishing the well-known journal at the end of 1993. By then, the seed of food microstructure studies had already been sown and, thus, Dr. Johari will be remembered as one of their founders and supporters. Food structure studies have been flourishing again and are being published by Elsevier in a new journal of the same name, Food Structure.

   The table above provides links to a variety of subjects.
Top line:

Microscopy (introduction to electron miccroscopy, encapsulation of viscous foods for electron microscopy, fixation of fat for TEM, immunolocalization in electron microscopy, freezing samples for electron microscopy, dry-fracturing and freeze-fracturing, artefact in transmission electron microscopy of starch, and SEM of microorganisms - a long time preservation of the specimens).
Cheese (coagulation of milk, pressing and ripening, cottage cheese, unripened cheeses, cream cheese, low-fat cheeses, Brick cheese vs. Cheddar cheese - curd granule and milled curd junctions, processed cheese: the principles of processing, processed cheese rework, ow to prepare cheese samples for SEM).
Yogurt (heating of milk is essential to the yogurt structure to develop, syneresis, labneh or yogurt cheese).
Milk (corpuscular constituents of milk, milk solids in meat binders and their detection by TEM).

The second line deals with bacteria:

Foods & bacteria (structure of various foods including nuts, foodborne bacteria - beneficial and pathogenic).
Bacteria in foods (an article by Dr. Roger Wheatcroft on food pathogens such as Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and beneficial bifidobacteria).
Bacterial filters (the microstructure of some bacterial filters imitates the images of microorganisms and may be misleading).
SEM of Bacteria (a link to a paper entitled "Conventional Scanning Electron Microscopy of Bacteria" published in infocus magazine - Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society).

The third line has the following links:

Microscopy & Hygiene (a paper published in infocus magazine - Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society).
Guest Food Microscopists 2 (a contribution by Dr. Isaac Heertje on regular and low-fat spreads and on the "morning" eggs).
Guest Food Microscopists 3 (a contribution by Mr. Ann-Fook Yang on environmentral scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) of cauliflower, broccoli, furu, Penicillium digitatum, and leaf mites.)
Surface replication (SEM micrographs of bacteria on large objects which cannot be accomodated in a microscope may be obtained by replicating the bacteria using cellulose acetate replicating tapes).

The fourth line has the following links:

aglyphs - 3-D SEM micrographs
Food Structure J. 1. Dairy products
Food Structure J. 2. Fats and oils
Sticky tape

The fifth line provides links to these subjects:

The Beauty of Milk at High Magnification
Talking about Electron Microscopy of Foods
History of Publishing Food Structure FM, FS, SFMS
Tables of Contents

   A presentation on various electron microscopy subjects includes an explanation how to calculate the magnification of a micrograph from the width of the image in micrometers or from the micrometer marker.

Links to Images of Microorganisms

Micrographs of microorganisms may be accessed from the table below. One cell is called a bacterium (e.g., This bacterium is known...), many cells are called bacteria (e.g., These bacteria are found...). Mass media (plural) often make mistakes when dealing with bacteria.

The micrographs are protected by copyright. For technical and scientific information about the images featured please contact the author. Other interests in images of microorganisms should be directed to commercial photo banks.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens Alcaligenes faecalis Alcaligenes viscolactis
Bacillus brevis Bacillus cereus Arcobacter species
Bacillus megaterium Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis
Bifidobacteria Campylobacter jejuni Clostridium difficile
Enterobacter sakazakii Erwinia carotova Escherichia coli
Enterobacter aerogenes Kefir micro-organisms Infected chicken meat
Lactobacillus acidophilus Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lactobacillus casei, L. rhamnosus
Leuconostocs Listeria monocytogenes Mycobacterium smegmatis
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salmonella spp. Serratia marcescens
Shigella sonnei Staphylococcus aureus Root nodule bacteria
Streptococcus thermophilus Yersinia enterocolitica Compost micro-organisms

The author has joined the ResearchGate in 2015. This step has made it possible to summarize most of his scientific publications since 1959 until present and upload those still in the form of reprints to make them available through his profile. It shows that he was active in a very wide field of scientific research. A brief feature of his career in the Czech Wikipedia has been translated in English.

Following his research of pectic substances and the effluents from sugar factories at the Slovak Academy of Science in Bratislava, he joined the Faculty of Medicine at Palacky University in his home town in the Czech Republic. As a biochemist, he was a member of various medical groups which explains his publications on various topics from dermatology to gastroenterology to enzymology etc. The enzyme arginase was the subject of his thesis to achieve the position of a "docent" (equivalent to the position of "associate professor"). He also lectured biochemistry at the Faculty of Science, where be accepted the position of Chairman of the Department of Organic and Biological Chemistry shortly before having been awarded a postdoctorate fellowship to study lipoproteins in the laboratory of Dr. W. H. Cook at the National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa. Only several of his publications are available from the time when he worked in Czechoslovakia.

The infamous invasion of his home country in 1968 at the time of his scheduled return to Olomouc had abruptly changed his and his family's life. He was lucky to be hired as a research scientist at the Canadian Federal Department of Agriculture in Ottawa. Assigned a task to develop milk-based frankfurters, he learned electron microscopy in order to understand the role of microstructure in physical and sensory properties of foods, particularly milk products.

He was also lucky to have excellent colleagues, from Doug Emmons, who recommended Milos to his director as a new member of the Dairy Team at the Food Research Institute, to John Quinn who spent a lot of effort to teach Milos how to write scientific papers concisely, to Harry Harwalkar who introduced Milos to dairy science, to John Holme, the director who recognized the importance of electron microscopy in food research and gave Milos complete freedom for 9 years (i.e., the entire time of his own tenure) to carry out research of subjects important to Canadian agriculture. Milos was surrounded by friendly excellent coworkers, scientists and technicians, who all together made him feel comfortable in the new country and at a different way of life. Many of them became his co-authors similar to colleagues in other countries as the list of his publications shows.

One of the most important achievements which made Milos happy, was the founding a new scientific journal, Food Microstructure, later renamed Food Structure at the suggestion of Dr. Ies Heertje. Regrettably, the journal had been discontinued by the publisher at the end of 1993. This situation has been reflected in ResearchGate in the respect, that in 2015, papers published in a discontinued journal did not have much impact anymore, although 20 to 30 years ago papers published in Food Structure provided the direction and guidance for food structure studies on the global scale.

The situation has changed for the better through the efforts of Dr. Donald McMahon at the Utah State University. By his decision to digitize the entire issues of Food Microstructure and Food Structure he actually fulfilled the last wish of the former publisher, Dr. Om Johari, that all papers there should be available at no cost on the Internet. There titles and their locations are listed in separate tables.

Webpages by Milos as they existed in the Spring 2015 at have been archived in Utah.

As an Honorary Research Associate, Milos collaboratores with scientists at the Canadian Blood Services by providing SEM images of blood cells and bacteria which may contaminate blood products. This work is reflected in the most recent papers in his ResearchGate profile.

Earlier in his career, Milos started colouring electron micrographs using Adobe Photoshop to emphasize specific components or structures at a time when such action had been considered unethical by some colleagues. In contrast, the Royal Microscopical Society in the United Kingdom invited Milos to contribute manuscripts for the infocus magazine which would be illustrated with "colour-enhanced" micrographs. The three papers already published (SEM of Bacteria, Microscopy and Hygiene, and The Beauty of Milk at High Magnification), the fourth submitted jointly with Ms. Denise Chabot and Mr. Keith Hubbard is scheduled for publication in December 2015.

From earlier times when the work of several colleagues had been featured on this website, there are still three remaining: Ies Heertje in "Guest Food Microscopists 2" and Ann-Fook Yang and Mark Auty in "Guest Food Microscopists 3". Some links to other sites on food microscopy are listed below:

Food Microscopy (Microscopy Handbooks) (Paperback) by O. Flint
Food Microscopy by J. G. Vaughan (Editor) (Hardcover)
Microstructural principles of food processing and engineering - by Jose Miguel Aguilera, David W. Stanley
Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery: Burgers 'n Fries

The author of this set of articles on the microstructure of foods is not a health care professional of any kind and assumes no liability for any health effect which would result from using information on the foods mentioned without personally checking first with a health specialist.

Illustrations (micrographs and diagrams) are protected by copyright.

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