Table of Contents:

Microscopy Cheese Yogurt Milk
Foods & bacteria Bacteria in foods Bacterial filters SEM of Bacteria
Will be available shortly
Microscopy & Hygiene Guest
Food Microscopists 2
Food Microscopists 3
Surface replication
Anaglyphs - 3-D SEM micrographs Food Structure J.
1. Dairy products
Food Structure J.
2. Fats and oils
Sticky tape
The Beauty of Milk... Talking about Electron
Microscopy of Foods
History of Publishing
Food Structure
Tables of Contents

Updated: February 4, 2016.

Food Structure Journal 1982-1993
Beauty of Milk is now available.
Hygiene & Microscopy is now available.
SEM of Bacteria not yet available.
Talking about EM of Foods
Guest Food Microscopists 3
About the author


The Royal Microscopical Society in the United Kingdom has been designing a new website. Consequently, the links to articles published in their Proceedings (infocus magazine) are being changed. As of February 4, 2016, the papers Microscopy and Hygiene and The Beauty of Milk at High Magnification are again accessible; soon, also "Conventional SEM of Bacteria" will have a new URL.

References to Food Structure Journal 1982-1993 now lead to the full-text papers and readers may download them free of charge. Thanks to Dr. Donald J. McMahon at Utah State University in Logan, Utah, USA, the scientific papers published in the discontinued journal Food Microstructure - Food Structure (1982-1993) are now freely accessible at

Late in his life, Dr. Om Johari, publisher of the journal (see below), had expressed his desire that everything he had published be freely accessible to everyone interested. Dr. Donald J. McMahon, has worked hard to fulfill Dr. Johari's wish. With his team, he has digitized most of the scientific papers and it is only the matter of time before all papers are accessible. In spite of over 20 years which have passed sice the demise of the journal, the papers still present important information about food structure studies.

The ResearchGate data base now recognizes both the discontinued Food Structure journal and the new Food Structure journal published by Elsevier.

Dr. Om Johari, the publisher or Food Microstructure and Food Structure journal in 1982-1993, passed away in Chicago on March 18, 2015.

Dr. Johari will be remembered by very many microscopists on the global scale including those specialized in food science. He offered this latter group a separate session in 1979 at the international Scanning Electron Microscopy meetings which he used to organize as the Secretary-Treasurer and Director of SEM Meetings of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Inc. This not-for-profit organization was established with the following goals:

(a) Promotion of advancement of science of SEM and related material characterization techniques.
(b) Promotion of application of these techniques in existing and new areas of application.
(c) Promotion of these techniques so that their users obtain the best information of the highest quality from their instruments.

Scientific papers resulting from the meetings were published in the hard-cover SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY journal until 1982 when Dr. Johari accepted a suggestion by 4 scientists that a specialized soft-cover journal be established. Compiled, the food science papers were all re-published in a single book entitled Studies of Food Microstructure. Then, the first issue of Food Microstructure was published in 1982.

SEM, Inc. offered travel support to needy authors offering tutorial and review papers. In addition, travel subsidy was available in the form of President's Scholarship to active participants on the global scale. Having immigrated to the USA from India, Dr. Johari had a great understanding for scientists in developing countries. Financial support made it possible for them to meet other colleagues and thus contribute to their development of professional growth.

It was very regrettable when, apparently for health reasons, he discontinued publishing the well-known journal at the end of 1993. By then, the seed of food microstructure studies had already been sown and they are flourishing nowadays again.

Dr. Johari will be remembered as one of their founders and supporters and also for his decision, which he had made earlier in 2015, that the contents of the Food Microstructure/Food Structure journal be made available in an open access format.

Two new sites (Food Structure Journal. 1. Dairy Products and Food Structure Journal. 2. Fats and Oils) have been created to bring attention to papers on the micro­structure of milk products and fats and oils, which were published more than 20 years ago. Emphasis is on papers published in the Studies of Food Microstructure and in the journal Food Microstructure which was published in 1982-1989 (Vol. 1-8) and was renamed Food Structure in 1990 (Vol. 9). Volunteers willing to review other foods such as cereals, meat products, legumes, etc. in a similar format are welcome to discuss their potential contributions with the former editor-in-chief. Another site, The History of Food Structure, presents personal reminiscences of the former Editor-in-Chief. Essential information about the journal is available in Wikipedia.

The defunct journal has now been succeeded by a new journal under the same title, Food Structure, published by Elsevier. The first issue will appear at the beginning of 2014, thus providing food scientists with a needed forum.

   The tables of Contents for the Food Microstructure and Food Structure journals are now also accessible at the following URL: by courtesy of professor Dr. H. D. Goff at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. They are also accessible at the Food Structure and Funtionality Forum. These URLs will be available even if this website ceases to be functional.

   Since the last updating of this site, the author provided electron micrographs of micro­organisms and blood cells to other colleagues, for example, Staphylococcus epidermidis forms biofilms under simulated platelet storage conditions.

   A presentation on various electron microscopy subjects includes an explanation how to calculate the magnification of a micrograph from the width of the image in micrometers or from the micrometer marker.

   Fresh spinach was removed from food stores in North America in 2006 because it was contaminated with toxigenic bacteria. Also lettuce was found to have caused food poisoning - similar to some other leaf vegetables which are consumed raw. SEM shows Escherichia coli bacteria on the leaves in the Talking about electron microscopy of foods.

   Some 20 years ago, when research findings were published in journals, pairs of SEM stereograms were printed on paper if there was a need to show the three-dimensional structure of the specimen. They were then examined visually using a simple optical stand, but some researchers have been able to cross their eyes and see the 3-D structures directly. This was relatively easy if the two images were properly spaced with respect to the distance between human eyes of about 68 mm. It is still possible but not as easy nowadays when micrographs are shown on monitors or projected on a screen. Yet it is sometimes useful to show the 3-D structure, particularly where minute particles are interacting with each other - not necessarily in foods, e.g., blood platelets with bacteria or bacteria with magnetic beads, etc.

   Anaglyphs are pairs of stereograms within a single frame - one image is red and the other is cyan, green, or blue. They have to be viewed through (plastic) glasses of the corresponding colours. If you have them, you may find the new contribution interesting. It shows how to make anaglyphs using a scanning electron microscope. A practical example may be found here in Fig 4 (p. 58).

   Images of microorganisms shown in bold letters in the pink table below are available for viewing. Restoration of these sites has been slower than anticipated

    One of the earlier additions to this site is a finding that a double sticky tape is not as good a mounting material as it has been believed to be. After a few days, bacteria on Nuclepore filters could not be examined again because they seemed to be obscured by some unknown material. Something oozing was through the filter...

   In the past few months, the author of this site used SEM to photograph bacteria adhering to chicken intestines. There was a need to retain the mucus in which and below which the bacteria live. Ruthenium red provided better results than Alcian blue. A note and a micrograph may be found here

   Examination of rice grains and rice starch has produced interesting results particularly concerning so-called red yeast rice. The yeast in this case is Monascus purpureus. It disintegrates the rice grains to some extent and partially digests the starch granules inside. At the same time, it produces minute crystals of statins (substances known to reduce cholesterol in humans) on the rice grain surface. A note and 3 micrographs may be found here.

   At present, the author is an Honorary Research Associate at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Ottawa, where he provides assistance in electron microscopy to his colleagues and occasionally adds new information to his talk about food microscopy.

   Is it possible to obtain SEM images of stainless steel surfaces used in the manufacture of foods? Such surfaces get into contact with a variety of food ingredients and unless they are frequently cleaned, they could become sources of food-borne pathogens. Could scratches in smooth surfaces provide hiding places for some hardened microorganisms? Although it is not possible to place large subjects into electron microscopes, it is possible to replicate surfaces of interest and examine the replicas of small surface areas. A replication procedure now added to these Web sites makes it possible to show the details of steel surfaces including bacterial contamination.

   Does cryofixation of hydrated foods produce more accurate images of their structures than chemical fixation? It may, under certain conditions, which, however, are not easy to meet. Otherwise the structure of the sample may be distorted by the development of ice crystals.

Links to Images of Microorganisms

Micrographs of microorganisms may be accessed from the table below. One cell is called a bacterium (e.g., This bacterium is known...), many cells are called bacteria (e.g., These bacteria are found...). Mass media (plural) often make mistakes when dealing with bacteria.

The micrographs are protected by copyright. For technical and scientific information about the images featured please contact the author. Other interests in images of microorganisms should be directed to commercial photo banks.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens Alcaligenes faecalis Alcaligenes viscolactis
Bacillus brevis Bacillus cereus Arcobacter species
Bacillus megaterium Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis
Bifidobacteria Campylobacter jejuni Clostridium difficile
Enterobacter sakazakii Erwinia carotova Escherichia coli
Enterobacter aerogenes Kefir micro-organisms Infected chicken meat
Lactobacillus acidophilus Lactobacillus bulgaricus Lactobacillus casei, L. rhamnosus
Leuconostocs Listeria monocytogenes Mycobacterium smegmatis
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salmonella spp. Serratia marcescens
Shigella sonnei Staphylococcus aureus Root nodule bacteria
Streptococcus thermophilus Yersinia enterocolitica Compost micro-organisms

The author has joined the ResearchGate in 2015. This step has made it possible to summarize most of his scientific publications since 1959 until present and upload those still in the form of reprints to make them available through his profile. It shows that he was active in a very wide field of scientific research. A brief feature of his career in the Czech Wikipedia has been translated in English.

Following his research of pectic substances and the effluents from sugar factories at the Slovak Academy of Science in Bratislava, he joined the Faculty of Medicine at Palacky University in his home town in the Czech Republic. As a biochemist, he was a member of various medical groups which explains his publications on various topics from dermatology to gastroenterology to enzymology etc. The enzyme arginase was the subject of his thesis to achieve the position of a "docent" (equivalent to the position of "associate professor"). He also lectured biochemistry at the Faculty of Science, where be accepted the position of Chairman of the Department of Organic and Biological Chemistry shortly before having been awarded a postdoctorate fellowship to study lipoproteins in the laboratory of Dr. W. H. Cook at the National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa. Only several of his publications are available from the time when he worked in Czechoslovakia.

The infamous invasion of his home country in 1968 at the time of his scheduled return to Olomouc had abruptly changed his and his family's life. He was lucky to be hired as a research scientist at the Canadian Federal Department of Agriculture in Ottawa. Assigned a task to develop milk-based frankfurters, he learned electron microscopy in order to understand the role of microstructure in physical and sensory properties of foods, particularly milk products.

He was also lucky to have excellent colleagues, from Doug Emmons, who recommended Milos to his director as a new member of the Dairy Team at the Food Research Institute, to John Quinn who spent a lot of effort to teach Milos how to write scientific papers concisely, to Harry Harwalkar who introduced Milos to dairy science, to John Holme, the director who recognized the importance of electron microscopy in food research and gave Milos complete freedom for 9 years (i.e., the entire time of his own tenure) to carry out research of subjects important to Canadian agriculture. Milos was surrounded by friendly excellent coworkers, scientists and technicians, who all together made him feel comfortable in the new country and at a different way of life. Many of them became his co-authors similar to colleagues in other countries as the list of his publications shows.

One of the most important achievements which made Milos happy, was the founding a new scientific journal, Food Microstructure, later renamed Food Structure at the suggestion of Dr. Ies Heertje. Regrettably, the journal had been discontinued by the publisher at the end of 1993. This situation has been reflected in ResearchGate in the respect, that in 2015, papers published in a discontinued journal did not have much impact anymore, although 20 to 30 years ago papers published in Food Structure provided the direction and guidance for food structure studies on the global scale.

The situation has changed for the better through the efforts of Dr. Donald McMahon at the Utah State University. By his decision to digitize the entire issues of Food Microstructure and Food Structure he actually fulfilled the last wish of the former publisher, Dr. Om Johari, that all papers there should be available at no cost on the Internet. There titles and their locations are listed in separate tables.

Webpages by Milos as they existed in the Spring 2015 at have been archived in Utah.

As an Honorary Research Associate, Milos collaboratores with scientists at the Canadian Blood Services by providing SEM images of blood cells and bacteria which may contaminate blood products. This work is reflected in the most recent papers in his ResearchGate profile.

Earlier in his career, Milos started colouring electron micrographs using Adobe Photoshop to emphasize specific components or structures at a time when such action had been considered unethical by some colleagues. In contrast, the Royal Microscopical Society in the United Kingdom invited Milos to contribute manuscripts for the infocus magazine which would be illustrated with "colour-enhanced" micrographs. The three papers already published (SEM of Bacteria, Microscopy and Hygiene, and The Beauty of Milk at High Magnification), the fourth submitted jointly with Ms. Denise Chabot and Mr. Keith Hubbard is scheduled for publication in December 2015.

From earlier times when the work of several colleagues had been featured on this website, there are still three remaining: Ies Heertje in "Guest Food Microscopists 2" and Ann-Fook Yang and Mark Auty in "Guest Food Microscopists 3". Some links to other sites on food microscopy are listed below:

Food Microscopy (Microscopy Handbooks) (Paperback) by O. Flint
Food Microscopy by J. G. Vaughan (Editor) (Hardcover)
Microstructural principles of food processing and engineering - by Jose Miguel Aguilera, David W. Stanley
Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery: Burgers 'n Fries

The author of this set of articles on the microstructure of foods is not a health care professional of any kind and assumes no liability for any health effect which would result from using information on the foods mentioned without personally checking first with a health specialist.

Illustrations (micrographs and diagrams) are protected by copyright.

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